Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Part 15: The Church and the Modern World


49. The Church in the Modern World
- The Church must propose Christ as the Perfect Man and live according to His example, in order that She may dialogue with the world, cooperate with men of good will, and assist in rectifying the world’s problems, with the ultimate goal of evangelizing the world.

A. Objectives of the Second Vatican Council. “To impart an ever increasing vigor to the Christian life of the faithful; to adapt more suitably to the needs of our own times those institutions which are subject to change; to foster whatever can promote union among all who believe in Christ; to strengthen whatever can help to call the whole of mankind into the household of the Church” (SC1). Or, in summary, “an internal renewal of the Church, the spread of the Gospel in every land and a dialogue with the world of today” (PO12).

B. Christ as Model of Life and Love. To these ends, the Church proposes as the model, for He, “Who is ‘the image of the invisible God’ is Himself the perfect man” (GS22) “fully reveals man to man himself and makes his supreme calling clear” (GS22). That calling is one of love, or charity, for “man, who is the only creature God has willed for his own sake, cannot fully find himself except in the sincere gift of himself” (GS24). Thus, “by manifesting Christ the Church reveals to men the real truth about their condition and their whole calling, since Christ is the source and model of that redeemed humanity, imbued with brotherly love, sincerity and a peaceful spirit, to which they all aspire” (AG8).

C. The Human Person.

a. General. The Church wishes to see to it that “the human person . . . be preserved [and] human society . . . renewed” (GS3).

b. Universal Brotherhood of Man. Thus She “offers to mankind the honest assistance of the Church in fostering that brotherhood of men which corresponds to [their] destiny” and achieves this goal (GS3). The Church expects Her people to “maintain good fellowship” with all and to “live in peace with all men” (NA5).

c. Proper Understanding of the Human Person. The Church achieves this universal brotherhood by “proclaiming the noble destiny” of “man himself whole and entire, body and soul, heart and conscience, mind and will” (GS3), and thus, help to “promote among men a sharper insight into their full destiny, and thereby lead them to fashion the world more to man's surpassing dignity, to search for a brotherhood which is universal and more deeply rooted, and to meet the urgencies of our ages with a gallant and unified effort born of love” (GS91).
i. Spiritual Nature. Most importantly to this end, the Church promotes and demands “a mutual respect for the full spiritual dignity of the person [to which] Christian revelation contributes greatly” (GS23).

D. Rectifying the Problems of the World.

a. Goal. To fulfill Her duty to “preserve the human person and renew human society … (GS3)

b. Interpretation of all things Worldly. “ . . . the Church has always . . . scrutiniz[ed] the signs of the times and interpret[ed] them in the light of the Gospel” (GS4), apart from which “the riddles of sorrow and death . . . overwhelm us” (GS22) for they seem meaningless. By “judg[ing all things] in light of [Divine Revelation]”, the Church can “add the light of revealed truth to mankind’s store of experience” (GS33).
i. All Christians as Co-Interpreters. To “hear, distinguish, and interpret the many voices of our age” (GS33) is the task of “the entire People of God”.  

c. Understanding of the World. The Church “must therefore recognize and understand the world in which we live, its explanations, its longings, and its often dramatic characteristics” (GS4).

d. Work of the Holy Spirit. To achieve this, however, the Church must do so “with the help of the Holy Spirit” (GS44). For it is “only God, Who created man [that] provides the most adequate answer to the questions
. . . through what He has revealed in Christ” (GS41).

E. Church Role in Secular Affairs.

a. Concern for Temporal Affairs. The Church is very much concerned with temporal affairs, for “while earthly progress must be carefully distinguished from the growth of Christ's kingdom, to the extent that the former can contribute to the better ordering of human society, it is of vital concern to the Kingdom of God” (GS39).

b. Influence in One’s Milieu. Christians thus “render service to the [entire] human family” by “exert[ing] their influence in their own milieu” (GS89).

F. Church Dialogue with the Modern World.

a. General. The Church must engage in “sincere and prudent dialogue” (GS21) with the World.

b. Respect and Love for All. To assist dialogue, “respect and love ought to be extended also to those who think or act differently than we do in social, political and even religious matters”, for “the more deeply we come to understand their ways of thinking through such courtesy and love, the more easily will we be able to enter into dialogue with them” (GS28).

c. Repudiation of Error. Though “error . . . always merits repudiation”, the person in error . . . never loses the dignity of being a person” (GS28). This distinction must always be made.

d. Relationships. This “brotherly dialogue among men does not reach its perfection on the level of technical progress, but on the deeper level of interpersonal relationships” (GS23).

e. Christian Unity a Prerequisite to Dialogue. “The . . . faithful can (fruitfully) engage in dialogue” with the modern world only if “we foster within the Church herself mutual esteem, reverence and harmony” for one another (GS92).

G. Cooperation with Men of Good Will.

a. Fraternal Cooperation in Service. Christians must “pattern [themselves] after the Gospel” in “work[ing] as brothers in rendering service to the [entire] human family” (GS92). This is because “all men, believers and unbelievers alike, ought to work for the rightful betterment of this world” (GS21) and pursue such apostolic aims in “cooperation [with] those who do not profess Christ's name but acknowledge [Catholic] values” (AA27).

b. Prerequisites in the Church. For this “mission” of unity with modern man, “mutual esteem, reverence, and harmony” is “required” in the Church Herself for this relationship to be “fruitful” (GS92).

H. Openness to the World.

a. How the World can Benefit the Church. The secular can even help the Church “examine [the truths of faith] and more deeply understand [them], that she might give it better expression in liturgical celebration and in the varied life of the community of the faithful”, and thus “enrich the Church” (GS58).

50. “Practical Christianity” and Inculturation: Bridging the Gap
- The Church should try to “bridge the gap” between the Christian faith and the secular world, through drawing out what we have in common, through excellence in secular affairs, and through inculturation.

A. Practical Christianity.

a. Christian Seeds in the Secular. First, “the Church . . . has used the discoveries of different cultures so that in her preaching she might spread and explain the message of Christ to all nations. . . . [Thus] she can enter into communion with the various civilizations, to their enrichment, [using] the spiritual qualities and traditions of every people and of every age, then strengthens, perfects and restores them in Christ” (GS58).

b. Secular Excellence. Secondly, “when man gives himself to the various disciplines of philosophy, history and of mathematical and natural science, and when he cultivates the arts, he can do very much to elevate the human family to a more sublime understanding of truth, goodness, and beauty, and to the formation of considered opinions which have universal value. . . . In this way, the human spirit, being less subjected to material things, can be more easily drawn to the worship and contemplation of the Creator. [Furthermore, they] provide some preparation for the acceptance of the message of the Gospel” (GS57).

B. Inculturation.

a. General. The Church has always practiced, “Inculturation” in the service of the Gospel, imbuing “the cultural manifestations and collective activity . . . with a human and a Christian spirit” (GS61).

b. Education in and Pursuit of a Higher Degree of Culture. The Church must also see to it that all “be carefully educated to a higher degree of culture through the use of the immense resources available today [and] the education of youth from every social background . . . undertaken” to provide men of “refined talents [and] great-soul[s]” which are “desperately required by our times” (GS31).  

c. Evangelisation. For it is through culture that the Church can evangelise. This is possible because “when man gives himself to the various disciplines of philosophy, history and of mathematical and natural science, and when he cultivates the arts, he can do very much to elevate the human family to a more sublime understanding of truth, goodness, and beauty, and to the formation of considered opinions which have universal value . . . In this way, the human spirit, being less subjected to material things, can be more easily drawn to the worship and contemplation of the Creator. [Thus they] provide some preparation for the acceptance of the message of the Gospel” (GS57).

Part 14: Social Justice


48. Social Justice: Purpose and Ways and Means; Peace; Economic Development; Culture
- The Church should take an active role in striving to provide for “the common good”, ensuring the human person is at the heart of all social institutions, thus striving for economic balance and development, and also seeking world peace based on justice and charity.

A. The Common Good, Social Institutions, the Human Person.

a. The Common Good. The Church and Society must always strive for the “common good”, which is “the sum of those conditions of social life which allow social groups and their individual members (men, families, and associations) relatively thorough and ready access to their own fulfillment” or “more adequately and readily . . . attain their own perfection” (GS26; GS74).

b. Social Institutions.
i. The Human Person: Goal. Now “the subject and the goal of all social institutions is and must be the human person” (GS25).
ii. The Social Order: Trust, Justice, Love, Freedom. This being so, the social order “must be founded on truth, built on justice and animated by love [and] in freedom it should grow every day toward a more humane balance” (GS26).
iii. Spiritual Aim: in Hierarchy. Now all “human institutions [must] be accommodated by degrees to the highest of all realities – spiritual ones” (GS29).
iv. Equality of Distribution: Governments. As for governments, they must remember that “the right of having a share of earthly goods sufficient for oneself and one's family belongs to everyone” (GS69), and thus should ensure the “shar[ing] [of] earthly goods [and] support [of] individuals or peoples with the aid by which they may be able to help and develop themselves” (GS69).
v. Universal Concern. This necessitates that they “take account of the needs and legitimate aspirations of other groups, and even of the general welfare of the entire human family” (GS26).  
vi. Empowerment. But all must strive to give “internal strength to human associations which are just” (GS42).
vii. Research. Christians must also “initiate research on social and public practices which should be improved in line with the spirit of the Gospel” (AA14).
viii. Moral Authority Necessary. The only way to accomplish this is through the establishment of “an authority to direct the energies of all citizens toward the common good”. However, it cannot be accomplished “in a mechanical or despotic fashion, but by acting above all as a moral force which appeals to each one's freedom and sense of responsibility” (GS74). This is a role which the Church must take upon Herself, though it would be helpful to unite with other Religions and Men of Good Will to achieve this goal.

c. Human Individuals.
i. The Human Person: Goal. Likewise, “it remains each man's duty to retain an understanding of the whole human person in which the [spiritual] values of intellect, will, conscience and fraternity are preeminent” (GS61).
ii. Equality of Distribution. Individuals too must ensure that “attention . . . always be paid to this universal destination of earthly goods” (GS69). Thus each “man should regard the external things that he legitimately possesses not only as his own but also as common in the sense that they should be able to benefit not only him but also others” (GS69). Therefore, “[all] individuals [should] share and employ their earthly goods, according to the ability of each, especially by supporting individuals or peoples with the aid by which they may be able to help and develop themselves” (GS69).

d. Works. The faithful should engage in “rightly regulating the affairs of social and economic life [such as] working toward the uplifting of human dignity, and toward better living conditions” (AG12), as well as join and help “peoples who, waging war on famine, ignorance, and disease, are struggling to better their way of life and to secure peace in the world” (AG12). They should also “be eager to offer prudent aid to projects sponsored by [various groups]” (AG12).

e. Cooperation with Men of Good Will. Finally, “the faithful [should] exert their influence in their own milieu to arouse a ready willingness to cooperate with the international community” to achieve social justice, “motivated solely by the desire to be of service to all” (GS89).

B. Economic Development.

a. Economic Equality. Because of the “demands of justice and equity”, “the immense economic inequalities” must be removed (GS66).
i. Scandal. Furthermore, “countries with a majority of citizens who are counted as Christians [should never] have an abundance of wealth, whereas others are deprived of the necessities of life” (GS88), for this is completely contrary to the Gospel and is a “scandal”.
ii. Development. It is through such “socio-economic development” that all involved will “make a great contribution to the prosperity of mankind” (GS72).
iii. Peace: Goal. For all this “contributes” to “the peace of the world” (GS72).

b. Duties and Roles of Advanced Nations.
i. Aid: Human and Financial. “Advanced nations”, for their part, must grant “human and financial aids” with the “aid of foreign specialists” (GS 85). They should also provide “gifts, loans or investments” (GS85) ensuring all assistance given be given “with generosity and without greed” (GS85). They should also set up a procedure for “collecting and distributing aids” (GS88).
ii. Organizations. They should also “set up [organizations] to foster and regulate international business affairs” and to “compensate for . . . excessive inequality” (GS86c).
iii. Other Aids (Technical, Cultural). They should provide “technical” and “cultural” aid as well (GS86c).
iv. Education. Assistance should not end with aid, but citizens of nations should be prepared “by education and professional training to discharge the various tasks of economic and social life” (GS85).
v. Profit: Assistance in Obtaining. Thus, people should be “helped both to increase and to market what they produce, and to introduce the necessary development and renewal and also obtain a fair income” (GS66).
vi. Labour Standards: Goal. It is hoped by all of this that “income may grow, working conditions . . . be improved, security in employment increased, and an incentive to working on one's own initiative given” (GS71).
vii. Relationship. Finally, such nations should act as “helpers and fellow-workers”, not as “overlords” (GS85), for “relations among peoples should be a genuine fraternal exchange in which each party is at the same time a giver and a receiver” (AA14).

c. Duties and Roles of Developing Nations.
i. Self-Help and Self-Reliance. “Developing nations”, on the other hand, must rely less on “foreign aid” and more on their own “labor and genius” and the “full utilization of their own resources” and the “development of their own culture and traditions” (GS86).
ii. Ways and Means. They must receive assistance “with complete honesty”, and all which that entails, and remain “outstanding” in their “influence on other [nations]” (GS85).  

d. Widespread Participation. But “at every level the largest possible number of people and . . . all nations [should] have an active share in directing [economic] development” (GS65).

C. Peace.

a. Based on Justice. Since “peace results from [just] order structured into human society” (GS78), the Church must pursue and aim for justice.

b. Fruit of Love. “Peace is likewise the fruit of love, which goes beyond what justice can provide”, and thus, “Christians [must] do in love what the truth requires” (GS78). Thus “peace [must be] based on justice and love” (GS77).

c. Instruments of Peace. Christians must also help in “setting up the instruments of peace” (GS77).

d. Participation and Example. Christians must “give a shining example” of pursuing “peace” through taking an “active part in present socio-economic development and fight for justice and charity” (GS72).
i. Universal Respect and Brotherhood. This justice requires that “personal well-being [be] safeguarded” and that all “respect other men and peoples and their dignity, as well as the studied practice of brotherhood” (GS78).

e. Cooperation with Men of Good Will. They must also “join with all true peacemakers in pleading for peace and bringing it about” (GS78).

Miscellaneous: Culture

D. Culture.

a. Fulfillment of Man. “Human culture must . . . both develop the whole human person and aid man in those duties to whose fulfillment all are called (GS 56), such as “growth of the faculty of admiration, of intuition, of contemplation, of making personal judgment, [and] of developing a religious, moral and social sense” (GS59).
i. Unity. It should “especially” lead to man’s fulfillment in fostering “Christians fraternally united in one human family” (GS56).

b. Subordinated to Man and Society. Thus, “culture is to be subordinated to the integral perfection of the human person, to the good of the community and of the whole society” (GS59).
i. Role of Christians. Christians should be “working diligently for fundamental decisions to be taken in economic and political affairs . . . which will everywhere recognize and satisfy the right of all to a human and social culture in conformity with the dignity of the human person” (GS60) as well as “provide all with quantity of cultural benefits” (GS60).

c. Leisure. Finally, all should ensure “leisure be used properly to relax, to fortify the health of soul and body through spontaneous study and activity, through tourism which refines man's character and enriches him with understanding of others, through sports activity which helps to preserve equilibrium of spirit even in the community, and to establish fraternal relations among men of all conditions, nations and races” (GS61).

Miscellaneous: Employers

E. Employers.

a. Respect for the Human Person. Employers must make sure that labour does not consist of “the mere increase of products nor profit or control but rather [be at] the service of man . . . with regard for the full range of his material needs and the demands of his intellectual, moral, spiritual, and religious life” (GS64).

b. Sufficient Wages. Thus, the employer must first of all make it his primary concern that his employee is paid so he can  “cultivate worthily his own material, social, cultural, and spiritual life and that of his dependents . . . ” (GS67)

c. Providing for Rest and Leisure. . . . and secondly, ensure he “enjoys sufficient rest and leisure to cultivate [his] familial, cultural, social and religious life” (GS67).

d. Providing Opportunities. In relation to the job itself, labourers must be given “the opportunity . . . to unfold their own abilities and personality through the performance of their work [and] to develop the energies and potentialities which perhaps they cannot bring to much fruition in their professional work” (GS67).

e. Involvement and Participation. Finally, employers should promote “the active sharing of all in the administration and profits” in various ways (GS68) make sure “the workers . . . have a share also in determining [economic and social] conditions in person or through freely elected delegates” (GS68).

Part 13: Ecumenism and Interreligious Dialogue


A. Principles of Ecumenism.
- Ecumenism must function according to four key principles.
a. Charity. First and most importantly, “in all things . . . charity [must] prevail . . .” (UR4)
i. Unity greater than Division. “. . . for the bonds which unite the faithful are mightier than anything dividing them” (S92), which all must keep in mind.

b. Unity in Essentials Only, Legitimate Diversity Honoured. Secondly, though “all . . . must preserve unity in essentials”, Christians enjoy “freedom in their various forms of spiritual life and discipline, in their different liturgical rites, and even in their theological elaborations of revealed truth” (UR4) and of course, “freedom in what is unsettled” (GS92). Thus, the chief principle that must guide “the restoration or the maintenance of unity and communion” is that the Church must “impose no burden beyond what is essential” (UR18).

c. Fidelity to Catholic Doctrine. Third, however, care must be taken that “superficiality and imprudent zeal” be avoided, and that “ecumenical action . . . be fully and sincerely Catholic . . . in harmony with the faith” (UR24).

d. Initiation by Catholics. Fourth, though ecumenism requires the work of both sides, it is up to Catholics to “make the first approaches” (UR4).

44. First Principle: Truth and Fairness towards Separated Brethren

A. Attitudes toward Separated Brethren. 
a. False Understanding. “Ecumenism consists first in effort to avoid expressions, judgments and actions which do not represent the condition of our separated brethren with truth and fairness” (UR4).

b. Proper Perspective. To this end, we must “get to know the outlook of our separated brethren” through “study . . . with a sense of realism and good will” (UR9).

c. Acknowledgement of Christian Endowments. This will help us to “gladly acknowledge and esteem the truly Christian endowments . . . found among our separated brethren” and remember the grace they have received can even “be a help to our own edification” (UR4).

d. Fuller Understanding. Those “Catholics who already have a proper grounding need to acquire a more adequate understanding of the [faith] of our separated brethren” (UR9) in order to make a “true”, “fair”, and charitable view of them.
i. Areas. This understanding should encompass their “doctrines”, “history”, “spiritual and liturgical life”, and their “religious psychology and general background” (UR9).

B. Ecumenical Activity.

a. Universal. “Everyone” is to engage in ecumenism, especially in his “daily Christian life,” “according to his talent” (UR5). 

b. Outreach . For all Catholics must “be concerned for their separated brethren, praying for them, keeping them informed about the Church, making the first approaches toward them” (UR4).

45. Second Principle: Ecumenical Dialogue

A. Nature of Dialogue.

a. Experts. “Dialogue” should take place “between competent experts from different Churches and Communities . . .”

b. Religious Spirit. . . . and should be “organized in a religious spirit” (UR4).

c. Exchange of Teachings. “. . . in which each explains the teaching of his Communion in greater depth and brings out clearly its distinctive features, giving everyone a truer knowledge and more just appreciation of the teaching and religious life of both Communions” (UR4).

B. Principles of Dialogue.

a. Equality of Sides. First of all, both sides must “treat with the other on an equal footing” (UR9).

b. Charity, Humility, Honesty. The dialogue itself “must proceed with love for the truth, with charity, and with humility” (UR11).

c. Presentation of Doctrine. It is essential that “the [Catholic] doctrine . . . be clearly presented in its entirety”, “more profoundly and precisely”, though “in such terms as our separated brethren can also really understand”, for the purpose of ensuring the method of expression “never become an obstacle to dialogue” (UR11).

d. Subjects of Dialogue. The “subject of the dialogue [with Protestants]” should begin with and focus on “the teaching concerning the Lord's Supper, the other sacraments, worship, [and] the ministry of the Church” as well as with “discussion of the application of the Gospel to moral conduct” (UR22,23).

e. Hierarchy of Beliefs. It must be kept in mind that “in Catholic doctrine there exists a ‘hierarchy’ of truths, since they vary in their relation to the fundamental Christian faith” (UR11).

f. Christian Unity a Prerequisite to Evangelism. Finally, it must be remembered that “the . . . faithful can (fruitfully) engage in dialogue” with the modern world only if “we foster within the Church herself mutual esteem, reverence and harmony” for one another (GS92).

46. Third Principle: Cooperation and Prayer in Common

A. Cooperation for the Good of Humanity. Finally, “Cooperation between them in the duties for the common good of humanity and prayer in common wherever allowed” (UR4).

a. Cooperation. “Catholics should cooperate in a brotherly spirit with their separated brethren” (AG15), both “in social and in technical projects as well as in cultural and religious ones” (AG15), including upholding “human dignity”, pursuing “peace”, “the application of Gospel principles to social life”, “the advancement of the arts and sciences in a truly Christian spirit”, and thus “relieve the afflictions of our times” (UR12).

b. Partial Aim of Fostering Unity. This “cooperation of Catholics with other Christians . . . pursuing apostolic aims” (AA27) not only “vividly expresses the relationship which in fact already unites them [but further] develop[s it]” (UR12) as well.

B. Evangelism. 

a. United Witness. “Catholics should . . . with their separated brethren, mak[e] before the nations a common profession of faith . . . in God and in Jesus Christ” (AG15).

b. Avoid Division and Scandal for the Sake of the Gospel. Because “division among Christians damages the most holy cause of preaching the Gospel . . . and blocks the way to the faith for many” (AG6), “before the whole world . . . Christians [should] confess their faith [and] united in their efforts . . . with mutual respect . . . bear witness” (UR12). If they are unable, then “they should at least be animated by mutual love and esteem” (AG6), taking care to “exclude any appearance of indifference or confusion on the one hand, or of unhealthy rivalry on the other” (AG15).

C. Spiritual Ecumenism.
a. General. It is the “change of heart and holiness of life, along with public and private prayer for the unity of Christians [which is] the soul of the whole ecumenical movement, and merits the name, ‘spiritual ecumenism’” (UR8).

b. Change of Heart and Holiness of Life.
i. Catholic Attitude and Outlook. Regarding the former, “desires of unity take their rise and develop in a mature way” arise “from renewal of the inner life of our minds, from self-denial and an unstinted love”
(UR7). Thus, all must “pray . . . for the grace to be genuinely self-denying, humble, gentle in the service of others, and to have an attitude of brotherly generosity towards [the separated brethren]” (UR7).
ii. Church Renewal. Because “every renewal of the Church is essentially grounded in an increase of fidelity to her own calling” (UR6), it is the “primary duty [of Catholics] to make a careful and honest appraisal of whatever needs to be done or renewed in the Catholic household itself, in order that its life may bear witness
more clearly and faithfully to the teachings and institutions which have come to it from Christ” (UR4).
iii. Christian Perfection. Thus, “all Catholics must therefore aim at Christian perfection . . . that the Church may daily be more purified and renewed . . . ” (UR4)
iv. Correcting Past Errors and Faults. . . . and ensure that “if there have been deficiencies in moral conduct or in church discipline or even in the way that church teaching has been formulated these can and should be set right at the opportune moment” (UR6).

D. Prayer for Unity.

a. Prayer in Common. Finally, it is sometimes “allowable, indeed desirable that Catholics should join in prayer with their separated brethren [to] obtain the grace of unity and . . . express . . . the ties which still bind [all Christians]” (UR8).

b. Trust in Holy Spirit. Furthermore, all must acknowledge that “human powers and capacities cannot achieve this holy objective of Christian unity”, and therefore the Church must “rest all its hope on the prayer of Christ for the Church, on our Father’s love for us, and on the power of the Holy Spirit” (UR24). Thus, prayer becomes the most effective means to achieving Christian unity.

47. Interreligious Dialogue
- Christians should dialogue and collaborate with people of other religions – especially the Muslim and Jews – ensuring that we focus on elements of truth we have in common, hoping it will be a means to evangelization.

A. Principles and Methods of Interreligious Dialogue.

a. Respect and Reverence for Elements of Truth in other Religions. “The Catholic Church . . . regards with sincere reverence those . . . precepts and teachings [in other religions] which . . . often reflect a ray of . . . Truth” (NA2). Christians must “recognize, preserve and promote the good things, spiritual and moral . . . found among these men” (NA2).

b. Dialogue and Collaboration. Christians should engage in “dialogue and collaboration”, which ought to be “carried out with prudence and love” (NA2).

c. Witness of Life and “Dialogue of Salvation”. They must do so as a means to the end of “witness[ing] to the Christian faith and life”, for the Christians “must ever proclaim Christ . . . in whom men may find the fullness of religious life” so that the Church can carry out the “Dialogue of Salvation” (NA2).

d. Brotherhood of All Men. Finally, Christians must “treat [all men] in a brotherly way”, for all are created in God’s image. The Church “reproves [all] discrimination” on any basis – including that of religion (NA5). 

B. Dialogue with the Muslim Brethren.

a. Forgiveness. Regarding Muslims, both sides should “forget (the quarrels and hostilities) of the past” in Christian-Muslim relations (NA3).

b. Esteem and Understanding. Christians should “regard” the Muslims with “esteem” and “work sincerely for mutual understanding” (NA3).

c. Peace and Justice. Both groups should together “preserve” and “promote” peace and justice, for the “benefit of all mankind social justice and moral welfare, as well as peace and freedom” (NA3).

C. Dialogue with the Jewish Brethren. 

a. Attitude towards Judaism. Christians should acknowledge the great “spiritual patrimony” they have received from the Jews, and realize that patrimony is held in “common” (NA4).
i. Anti-Semitism. The Church also repudiates all “anti-Semitism” and stands in opposition to it (NA4).  
ii. Fair and Proper Perspective. Thus, in all “catechesis” and preaching, Jews should not be said to be or considered “rejected” or “accursed”, as was sometimes taught in the past. Rather, nothing should be taught, written, or said that does not conform to the “truth of the Gospel” or the “spirit of Christ” in reference to the Jews (NA4).

b. Understanding and Respect. Christians and Jews must aim for “mutual understanding and respect” (NA4).

c. Dialogue and Joint Studies. This respect and understanding is the natural “fruit” of joint “biblical and theological studies” and “fraternal dialogues”, which Christians and Jews should engage in.